It’s been six weeks since my arrival at Nuxeo now. I learned a lot of things and passed a very great time here. Starting from this week, I’ll try to write new things that I learned around software development and share with all of you. This week’s topic is about git.
We can commit at git using the
commit command. Argument
-m helps us to
commit with a meaningful message. For example, if this is the first commit of
the repository, then a message “init commit” can be given:
$ echo '# Learn Git' > README.md $ git add README.md $ git commit –m 'init commit' $ git log commit 0dd5d8918a5a0f9ad467a8ddf5154be737a34a5b Author: Mincong HUANG <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Fri Jan 20 22:13:39 2017 +0100 init commit
But what if we forget something to commit? The evident answer is to add another
commit. Yes, this is fine and it works perfectly for personal projects where we
are the only developer. However, if we work with other people and want to ensure
the readability of the workflow, then we might need another solution: “add” the
latest changes into the previous commit. It often happens in a company or an
open source organization, where there’re a lot of commits. To achieve this, we
can use the argument
$ echo 'Learn amazing Git.' >> README.md $ git add README.md $ git commit –-amend $ git log commit ba6569fee63832d402d2cbdefbc6d08248aad9ef Author: Mincong HUANG <email@example.com> Date: Fri Jan 20 22:13:39 2017 +0100 init commit
As you can see, the commit-hash value has been changed, but the author, date, commit message remain the same. Further reading:
- Why does Git use a cryptographic hash function?
- How does Git compute file hashes?
- How is Git commit SHA1 formed?
rebase moves the entire topic branch to begin on the tip of the master
branch, effectively incorporating all of the new commits in master. But, instead
of using a merge commit, rebasing re-writes the project history by creating
brand new commits for each commit in the original branch. Assume the following
history exists and the current branch is
A---B---C topic / D---E---F---G master
From this point, the result of either of the following commands:
git rebase master git rebase master topic
A'--B'--C' topic / D---E---F---G master
The major benefit of rebasing is that you get a much cleaner project history.
First, it eliminates the unnecessary merge commits required by git merge.
Second, as you can see in the above diagram, rebasing also results in a
perfectly linear project history—you can follow the tip of
"topic" all the way
to the beginning of the project without any forks. This makes it easier to
navigate your project with commands like
git bisect, and
But, there are two trade-offs for this pristine commit history: safety and traceability. If you don’t follow the Golden Rule of Rebasing, re-writing project history can be potentially catastrophic for your collaboration workflow. And, less importantly, rebasing loses the context provided by a merge commit—you can’t see when upstream changes were incorporated into the feature.